Frank Kush, the fearsome coach who transformed Arizona State from a backwater football program into a powerhouse, has died. He was 88.

Arizona State confirmed the death on Thursday.

“Coach Kush built ASU into a national football power,” ASU President Michael M. Crow said in a statement. “He taught us how to make football work, and he put ASU on the map long before it was a full-scale university. Throughout his life he maintained his strong connection to ASU, working with coaches and devoting time to the football program.

“By growing ASU football he helped us build the whole university into what it is today. He will be sorely missed.”

Kush compiled a 176-54-1 record while coaching the Sun Devils from 1958 to 1979. His teams won two Border Conference and seven Western Athletic Conference titles.

Arizona State won the Peach Bowl in 1970 and the first three Fiesta Bowls. His 1975 team went 12-0, capped by a 17-14 Fiesta Bowl victory over Nebraska.

Kush’s intense style figured prominently in his firing in October 1979 for what the university said was his interference in an internal investigation of allegations by a former player of physical and mental harassment against the coach.

He was head coach of the NFL’s Colts for two years in Baltimore and one in Indianapolis from 1982 to 1984, compiling an 11-28-1 record. Kush also spent one season as head coach of the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the Canadian Football League.

After a period of estrangement, Arizona State welcomed Kush back in 1996, holding a “Frank Kush Day” and naming the playing field at Sun Devil Stadium “Frank Kush Field.”

“My thoughts and prayers are with the Kush family,” current ASU coach Todd Graham said on Twitter. “It was a privilege to have known such a true coaching legend and man! His legacy will always be the cornerstone of the ASU Football Program! Coach Kush, I miss you my friend.”

He was hired as an assistant to the athletic director in 2000, helping with fundraising efforts. Kush was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1995.

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Jared Poche’ became LSU’s career wins leader, Jake Slaughter hit a three-run homer, and the Tigers eliminated Florida State from the College World Series with a 7-4 win Wednesday night.

LSU (50-18) advanced to the Bracket 1 final against No. 1 national seed Oregon State, which beat the Tigers 13-1 on Monday. The Tigers would have to beat the Beavers on Friday and again Saturday to reach the best-of-three finals next week.

Florida State (46-23) will go home without a national title for a 22nd time, and 16th under Mike Martin, who completed his 38th year as coach. No program has as many CWS appearances without winning the championship.

Poche’ (12-3), making his school-record 69th career start, won for the 39th time to break the record Scott Schultz set from 1992-95. He left after Quincy Nieporte and Cal Raleigh homered on consecutive pitches in the ninth. Zack Hess struck out the side for his third save.

Slaughter, making his first CWS start and batting out of the 9-hole, barely cleared the left-center fence when he connected on a hanging breaking ball from FSU starter Cole Sands (6-4) in the second inning. The homer, which made it 5-0 and ended Sands’ night, was the freshman’s first since March 15 and third of the season.

Slaughter, who had been a pinch runner and pinch hitter in the Tigers’ first two CWS games, got the start in place of Nick Coomes and also came up big on defense. He somehow kept his foot on the bag as he laid out to catch second baseman Cole Freeman’s relay to complete an inning-ending double play in the third, and he snagged a low liner off Jackson Lueck’s bat in the fourth.

Andrew Karp struck out seven and limited the Tigers to two singles over 5 1/3 shutout innings in relief of Sands. The Tigers tacked on a couple insurance runs in the ninth against Drew Carlton.

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During the last eight months, Iraqi forces have fought to corner Islamic State militants into an ever-dwindling area of the city of Mosul.

Troops this week began the long-anticipated assault on the Old City quarter, the last district still in the extremist group’s hands.

And Wednesday, officials said militants destroyed the iconic Nuri mosque, the site where Islamic State leader Abu Bakr Baghdadi declared the group’s caliphate three years ago.

As the pressure has increased around Mosul since the government offensive to retake it began Oct. 17, the fight has apparently transformed into a so-called cauldron battle, where the militants have no chance of escape. Their only options would be to surrender or die.

Several military officials and analysts expect the militants to make a last stand in the remaining one square mile of what had once been the crown jewel of their caliphate. Many officials estimate it will take more than a month to clear the area.

“The closer we’ve gotten to the Old City the more defenses we’re seeing,” said Col. Mounir Abdul Aziz, a commander with the Iraqi army’s 15th division, in a recent interview in west Mosul’s Zanjili neighborhood. “The problem is that now it’s a suicidal enemy. They don’t withdraw easily, unless they’re killed or wounded.”

The militant group on Saturday released a 34-minute video with footage of combat in Mosul and its preparations for battle.

According to one jihadi in the video, they would accept only one of two outcomes: “Either it is victory from Allah … or a martyrdom through which we enter paradise.”

Security forces have estimated that about 500 militants are holed up in the Old City.

The Old City’s densely packed buildings and narrow walkways require more troops than other locations to ferret out jihadis, said David Eubank, a former U.S. special forces soldier turned aid worker who is traveling with the Iraqi army’s 9th division.

“In normal assault situations, you need three soldiers to every militant. But in a place like this it requires seven to one, maybe even 10 to one,” Eubank said in an interview.

Nasser Nayef, an Iraqi Counter-Terrorism Service soldier, said the resistance would only get more difficult.

“What happens when you corner a cat? It scratches,” he said.

Islamic State has, in fact, adopted various tactics to stall the Iraqi troops’ advance. Here’s a look at some of them:


An Iraqi soldier shows off an Islamic State sniper rifle in west Mosul. (Nabih Bulos / For The Times)

The extremists have had more than three years to prepare for the assault on the Old City and have set up what soldiers say are well thought-out sniper lanes where troops are expected to come in.

An attack Sunday by Iraqi forces showed that Islamic State militants had chosen their sniper positions well. As Iraqi troops’ Humvees rolled toward the outer perimeter of the Old City, a commander’s voice sputtered out of the radio.

“Gunners get down. Get down,” he ordered.

Islamic State snipers were trying to pick off the gunners as they peeked out of their machine-gun nests to give suppressing fire.

Shouts erupted on the radio after one gunner caught a bullet in the shoulder and was swiftly evacuated to a medical station away from the front line.

Soldiers say the positions are well protected, placing the sniper behind a small hole in the wall of a building or even several rooms away from a structure’s outer wall to provide protection from strikes.

The group’s videos show the militants using not only standard scoped rifles, but also long-barreled weapons it has manufactured with a range up to almost 1,000 yards, soldiers say.

An Islamic State sniper fires his rifle in west Mosul.
An Islamic State sniper fires his rifle in west Mosul. (Islamic State video)

Heavy machine guns and rockets

The moment the Iraqi troops’ bulldozers began to breach ersatz barricades made of masonry and crumpled cars, the rat-tat-tat of heavy machine guns broke through the stillness of the morning Sunday, peppering the incoming troops with bullets.

With nothing left to lose, the militants have brought all the weapons they have to bear, said Lt. Col. Mohammed Tamimi, a battalion commander in the Counter-Terrorism Service.

As he spoke, bullets smacked the fence of the house where he had set up his mobile command center. The jihadis were less than 300 yards away.

“They’re shooting [powerful] guns to stop us,” Tamimi said. “That’s what you use to hit aircraft.”

Elsewhere on the front line, troops have found caches of Swedish-made antitank grenade launchers that were supplied to the Iraqi military by the U.S. but were scooped up by Islamic State when it took over Mosul in 2014, as well as antitank guided missiles.


Whether through warplanes or commercial drones, the U.S.-led coalition and Iraqi forces have many eyes in the sky over Mosul.

Once an Islamic State position is spotted, troops relay the coordinates to the coalition, which then conducts a strike in less than four minutes, said Col. Arkan Fadel, an Iraqi officer who coordinates airstrikes.

The intense surveillance has forced the militants to operate in small units of two- to five-man teams. They nimbly move through a network of holes punched in the walls between houses to avoid being seen from above.

The tunnels mean security forces must move in a coordinated line to stop the militants.

“I have to wait for the other units to come and secure both sides of where I am before I can go forward,” Lt. Col. Salam Obaidi of the Counter-Terrorism Service said Monday. “That’s why we’re advancing like turtles.”

Inghimasis and suicide bombers

Special correspondent Nabih Bulos walks through a west Mosul neighborhood where five Islamic State suicide bombers attacked Iraqi forces.

The early stages of the fight for Mosul saw Islamic State dispatch scores of suicide car bombs at the incoming forces. Using drones, the militants would direct drivers to avoid barriers set up by troops.

But the close-quarters combat and narrow streets of the Old City have led the group to shift to what are known as inghimasis, gunmen who rush at their enemy, fighting to the last bullet and grenade before detonating their suicide belts.

Last week, soldiers of the Iraqi army’s 9th division battled for control of the Shifaa neighborhood, which is next to the Old City. They had halted the advance for the day and had secured the street where they would spend the night — or so they thought.

Five suicide bombers ran at them, but none made it close enough to detonate their belts.

“One in the street, three in the mosque, another Daesh in this building here,” said Brig. Gen. Mustafa Sabah, a brigade commander with the 9th division. Daesh is the Arabic acronym for Islamic State.

“These guys want to die and my soldiers want to live. How do you counter that?”

Using residents as human shields

Residents flee the carnage in west Mosul.

About 700,000 people have fled Mosul, once Iraq’s second-largest city with a population of 1.2 million. But an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people still live in the Old City.

Security services have long accused Islamic State of using civilians as human shields and forcing residents to stay with the militants as they retreat to areas still under their control.

That issue has been compounded in Mosul, where the Iraqi government urged residents to stay in their homes during the offensive in a bid to reduce the number of those displaced.

In the Old City quarter troops are bound to engage in house-to-house fighting with militants hiding among civilians.

The buildings there are older, residents say, and liable to collapse even if not directly targeted. Military planners say they are doing everything they can to prevent civilian deaths.

“We are using less powerful ordnance in our strikes,” Lt. Gen. Abdul Wahab Saadi, deputy head of the Iraqi counter-terrorism forces, said in an interview.

Several residents interviewed last week spoke of dozens of people killed in the strikes.

Those lucky enough to survive the airstrikes still face the prospect of being hit by stray bullets, even as the militants massacre those who are fleeing the carnage. In a recent incident, hundreds were cut down by Islamic State snipers near Mosul’s Pepsi factory.

Those who flee tell of a desperate existence for those trapped inside the Old City.

“There was no fresh water inside. We sold our gold to afford to buy 6 jerrycans filled with water for $130,” said Maha Ghanem Salem, a resident fleeing from Shifaa neighborhood last week.

When her husband, a vegetable porter named Ali Salem, went to look for water, he caught sight of the soldiers. He quickly corralled his wife, his two sons and two daughters to make their escape.

“We have always worried that Iraqi civilians would pay a very high price and we have seen in the last few weeks that the number of civilians wounded and killed has increased, we fear, very sharply,” said Lise Grande, the United Nations’ humanitarian coordinator, said in a phone interview. “What is facing all of us in the next few days is frightening to contemplate.”

Bulos is a special correspondent.

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The Great Mosque of Al-Nuri and the leaning minaret Hadba in the Iraqi city of Mosul were destroyed by Islamic State extremists Wednesday, government officials said.

Commandos from Iraq’s elite Counter-Terrorism Service had gotten to almost 50 yards of the landmarks in Mosul when the militants blew up the mosque and minaret, officials said.

The mosque was where Islamic State leader Abu Bakr Baghdadi gave his first speech as caliph when the group blitzed through Mosul in 2014. A government offensive to retake the city was launched in October.

“The terrorist gangs of Daesh committed another history crime, the blowing up of the Nuri Mosque and the historic Hadba minaret,” said Iraqi staff Lt. Gen. Abdulamir Yarallah, the overall commander of the Mosul offensive, in a statement Wednesday.

He referred to Islamic State by its Arabic acronym. The group is also known as ISIS or ISIL.

Brig. Gen. Yahya Rasool, spokesman of the Iraqi Joint Operations Command, said in a phone interview Wednesday that this would not stop Iraqi forces “from ousting terrorists from our land.”

Islamic State blamed a U.S. airstrike for the destruction of the site.

But Col. Ryan Dillon, the American coalition spokesman for Iraq and Syria, said in a phone interview Wednesday “that the coalition did not conduct a strike at the time when the mosque was destroyed.”

Religious buildings, such as churches and mosques, are protected against U.S. military airstrikes. The buildings can be targeted only with the approval of senior military officers, if commanders believe they have been overtaken by enemy forces.

That was not the case with the mosque, according to Maj. Gen. Joseph Martin, U.S. commander of coalition ground forces.

“As our Iraqi Security Force partners closed in on the al-Nuri mosque, ISIS destroyed one of Mosul and Iraq’s great treasures,” he said in a statement. “This is a crime against the people of Mosul and all of Iraq, and is an example of why this brutal organization must be annihilated. The responsibility of this devastation is laid firmly at the doorstep of ISIS.”

Twitter: @nabihbulos

Special correspondent Bulos reported from Beirut and Times staff writer Hennigan from Washington. Time staff writer Molly Hennessy-Fiske in Beirut and special correspondent Wael Resol in Suleimaniya, Iraq, contributed to this report.


Muslims fast in Ramadan to practice compassion and self-restraint. Terrorists see it as a time to step up violence

Russia says it might have killed Islamic State leader in airstrike

Government forces begin storming Mosul’s Old City as Islamic State makes a last stand in its Iraqi ‘capital’


2:30 p.m.: This article was updated with statements by U.S. officials and more details.

This article was originally published at 1:45 p.m.

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California’s website for business records and requests just got a lot simpler.

As of Wednesday, businesses no longer have to submit physical LLC Statements of Information, as the records may now be submitted via the California secretary of state’s website. An LLC Statement of Information includes records such as the company’s name, location and type of business, as well as the addresses of chief executives and managers.

“We’re streamlining the process so that entrepreneurs can focus less on red tape and more on growing their business,” said California Secretary of State Alex Padilla.

Padilla’s office said it processes about 375,000 of the forms a year.

Sam Mahood, Padilla’s press secretary, said that business owners often accidentally miss a step with paper records, and the office rejects the form and makes the business resubmit. With the process going online, Mahood said the step-by-step directions should help users avoid the pitfalls of manually filling out forms.

“It’s an ongoing time-saving measure, since business owners have to file new Statements of Information every two years,” Mahood said.

The penalty for a business failing to file the statements by the deadline is $250, so the digitization should help business owners avoid the costly penalty. Those who want to submit the forms on paper can still do so.

To form an LLC for the first time, Articles of Organization must still be filed in person or by mail, but Padilla hopes to digitize that process by December.

The change in policy comes with the office’s Wednesday launch of Bizfile California, a one-stop online portal for users to submit, search and access business filings.

The portal joins the California Business Search, which the office revamped in December, as part of Padilla’s ongoing push to modernize the office.

Since December, Padilla’s office has posted more than 10 million free, downloadable records related to corporations, companies and partnerships. These include files on Statements of Information, registrations, amendments and terminations for businesses in California.

Previously, these documents cost $1 for the first page and 50 cents for every additional page, and usually took five business days to process.


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North Korea, obviously, isn’t a tourist destination for American families.

The reclusive totalitarian state has an abysmal human rights record, impoverished residents and an illicit nuclear weapons program — and it has detained numerous visitors over the years.

Yet as many as 1,000 American tourists still go there legally each year, despite the risks and strong warnings by the U.S. State Department not to do so.

These tourists are people like Shalin Mody, an investor from Pittsburgh — young adventure-seekers who’ve already traveled the world and are curious to explore one of the world’s least-understood nations, according to interviews with people who’ve taken or organized the trips.

“It such a strange country. That’s the first thing that strikes you,” said Mody, who went in 2012 and still recalls the locals’ unique clothes and other quirks, such as a fancy hotel with two adjacent male bathrooms. “It was the isolation and the sheer otherworldliness that struck me.”

Many who visit North Korea, typically in regime-approved tour groups that stage in Beijing, experience a highly structured trip designed to show the nation and its capital city, Pyongyang, at their best.

They are bused to schools where students perform choreographed dances or musical performances, for example, and they’re shown modern buildings, national museums and monuments to the dynastic regime that took firm control after the Korean War.

Such visits could soon be more difficult, however, in response to the detention and recent death of Otto Warmbier, a 22-year-old college student who spent 17 months in custody there for apparently offending the regime.

North Korea released Warmbier, who had suffered severe brain damage while in custody and was in a state of “unresponsive wakefulness,” last week. He died Monday in a Cincinnati hospital, and his family has blamed his death on brutal treatment while in custody. Doctors are still trying to determine what caused his condition.

Meanwhile, political leaders in the United States have responded with strong statements of concern.

A bipartisan bill pending in Congress would add new rules on American travel to North Korea, banning trips there for tourism. The Trump administration is also considering its own new restrictions. Meanwhile, some of the tourism agencies that have in the past transported Americans there are reconsidering the practice.

“The barbaric treatment of Otto Warmbier by the North Korean regime amounts to the murder of a U.S. citizen,” said U.S. Rep. Adam Schiff (D-Burbank), who has filed legislation known as the North Korea Travel Control Act to limit Americans’ travel there — and ban tourism outright.

Accounts from people who’ve visited the country vary, but many are positive. They report witnessing a country unlike any they’ve seen — a place with strange urban architecture, extreme poverty in rural areas and strict societal rules throughout.

During the tours, some have reported incidents of raucous, late-night partying in hotels — actions that could get tourists in trouble. Those who deviate from the controlled tours can face punishment, as many tour companies warn.

A grainy security video of Warmbier during his visit with a company called Young Pioneer Tours, for example, purported to show him taking a government banner from his hotel — an offense that apparently led to his short trial and a 15-year jail sentence.

Andray Abrahamian, who has organized trips for professionals to discuss economics but also tours for younger people participating in a Pyongyang marathon, said Warmbier’s case was tragic and needless — an extreme overreaction to a student who apparently made a youthful mistake.

But he said not everyone who visits as a tourist is respectful of local expectations, however rigid or unfamiliar they may be.

“Sometimes on tours, there is the risk that people aren’t taking the visit seriously,” he said. “Part of that is the impression among some people that North Korea is not only a dangerous place, but also a ridiculous place.”

It was with Young Pioneer Tours that Mody visited in 2012 — a trip he took after traveling extensively in Asia, South America and Africa. He said he witnessed heavy drinking by tour organizers in the bar at the Yanggakdo International Hotel, a common location for Western tourists.

“It is a youth-oriented group, and people do like to party. I don’t think that things were done in such a manner that put us at any undue risk,” he said.

Young Pioneer Tours said Tuesday it would no longer take Americans to North Korea in light of what happened to Warmbier. Another North Korea travel group, Uri Tours, said it too was reconsidering whether to accept American customers.

The flurry of tragic news about Warmbier — and the government’s recent warnings — also convinced at least one American to reconsider a North Korean tour.

Justin Lau, a tech strategist working in the Bay Area, had planned to enter North Korea from Beijing on Tuesday with a well-established tour company. Then he learned about Warmbier.

He said the agency, Koryo Tours, did an excellent job preparing him for the journey. Its English-speaking guides, for example, offered a “sober orientation” about expectations for tourists, cautioning him, for example, against taking pornography or religious materials. They also told him not to take pictures while there without asking guides for permission.

Still, he worried it wouldn’t be safe, given recent events.

“I was frankly really curious about going to North Korea. I almost likened it to visiting East Berlin back in the 1960s,” he said. “Obviously, I knew there was going to be a risk, but I believed it was a risk worth taking. Tuesday that threshold was crossed, and I was like, ‘no.’”

Robert Kelly, an American college professor in South Korea who visited on a tour with Koryo in 2012, said he witnessed plenty of tourists partying on his journey. But he said the group warned its customers to be careful about offending the locals.

“Stealing stuff, leaving Bibles, all that sort of stuff Koryo was very upfront about not doing. Warmbier should have been told all that,” Kelly said in an email while traveling back in the United States. “But the punishment was ridiculous. They basically murdered that poor boy.”

In addition to the travel-ban legislation filed by Schiff and Rep. Joe Wilson (R-S.C.), which would direct the Treasury Department to implement new licensing rules, the Trump administration is also considering its own restrictions.

Secretary of State Rex Tillerson told the House Foreign Affairs Committee that he and others were “evaluating” whether to impose a “travel visa restriction” on visits to North Korea, though it’s unclear in what form that might be imposed.

“We have not come to a final conclusion, but we are considering it,” he said.

Some who have visited say they would be more nervous about visiting now. But Abrahamian said such trips exposed a society that isn’t imaginable without seeing it, even with the risks.

“I can see why that sentiment exists,” he said of American officials’ efforts to restrict the travel. “On the other hand, overall, encouraging tourism still has some positive impact.”

Stiles is a special correspondent.

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For Muslims, Ramadan is the holiest month of the year. Families travel to mosques for nightly prayers, give charity to those in need and wake up before dawn to break fast — traditions meant to encourage self-reflection, compassion and piety. Ramadan is in short a chance to become closer to God.

Those who show righteous behavior during the holy month will be rewarded manifold in the afterlife, the Koran promises.

But in recent years, Islamic State leaders have twisted the meaning of Ramadan to encourage their followers to kill civilians. This year’s Ramadan, which ends June 24, has been mired in violence. Islamic State has claimed responsibility for a string of high-profile attacks that killed hundreds and injured many times that.

Islamic State markets the killing of so-called infidels any time as a spiritual opportunity. But in the group’s warped logic, doing it during Ramadan offers even greater rewards.

That idea is a perversion of the widely held belief in Islam that God holds good deeds done during the holy month in higher regard.

“Extremists like the Islamic State turn the spirituality of Ramadan upside down and deploy it as weapon of choice against real and imagined enemies,” said Fawaz Gerges, a professor of international relations at the London School of Economics and author of “ISIS: A History.” “They claim that the Islamic community face an existential threat and say that the fate of the Islamic community rests on their individual effort.”

Those susceptible to Islamic State propaganda find the group’s call to arms during the holy month particularly appealing, he said. “Some young men and women conflate their spirituality of Ramadan with armed and violent jihad.”

“It is no wonder in the past few years Ramadan has seen more spectacular attacks carried out by followers and supporters of Al Qaeda and the Islamic State,” he said.

The attacks this year started on May 22, four days before Ramadan, when a suicide bomber in Britain killed 22 people at an Ariana Grande concert in Manchester.

Then in the early hours of May 30, a bomb exploded in Baghdad outside an ice cream shop, killing 10 people. Hours later, a second bomb went off in a different part of the city, killing 12 more.

The next day in Kabul, Afghanistan, a suicide bomber killed at least 90 people on a bustling shopping street.

On June 7, assailants went on a shooting rampage inside Iran’s parliament building in Tehran and attacked a shrine to the Islamic Republic’s founder. The death toll was 17.

In all, Islamic State has claimed responsibility for 267 attacks this Ramadan, according to the SITE Intelligence Group, an independent organization that researches terrorist groups.

It’s unclear how many of the attacks were ordered and directed by Islamic State and how many were carried out independently by people inspired by the group’s extensive propaganda on social media.

In mid-June, Islamic State spokesman Abu Hassan Muhajir released an audio message on the encrypted messaging app Telegram calling on people to launch attacks in the U.S., Europe, Russia, Australia, Iraq, Syria, Iran and the Philippines.

And earlier that month, Islamic State encouraged its followers to carry out knife, gun and vehicle attacks in a poster written in Arabic and English that it published on Nashir News Service, which is the group’s channel on Telegram.

“Kill the civilians of the crusaders, run over them by vehicles,” it reads. “Gain benefit from Ramadan.”

The word “crusader” in this context refers to people who do not agree with their extreme ideology.

“By hijacking this annual holiday, they’ve inspired fear and anxiety years in a row,” said Bruce Hoffman, director of security studies at Georgetown University. “That’s how it generates their power. Terrorism is as much about violence as it is about the perceived threat of continued violence.”

Andreas Krieg, an assistant professor at King’s College London’s department of defense studies, said one of the first instances of Islamic State propagating its perverse view was a 2014 YouTube video in which it referenced the ancient Battle of Badr.

The battle occurred in the year 624 and was a pivotal moment in early Islamic history. Despite being heavily outnumbered by their enemies, the prophet Muhammad and his followers defeated the non-believers and helped spread Islam in what is now Saudi Arabia.

Jihadists today perceive today’s standoff with the non-believers as modern version of that ancient battle. Islamic State is currently fighting for its survival as it loses territory in both Iraq and Syria.

Extremists believe there are victories to be won during Ramadan, and that martyrdom for the cause will be greatly rewarded in the afterlife.

Last year’s Ramadan was also particularly violent.

In an audio message released before its start last June, a spokesman called for more violence during the holy month. “Ramadan, the month of conquest and jihad,” said Abu Muhammad Adnani, who has since been killed. “Get prepared, be ready … to make it a month of calamity everywhere for the non-believers.”

And that they did.

Omar Mateen shot and killed 49 people in a nightclub in Orlando, Fla.; attackers killed more than 40 people at Istanbul’s Ataturk airport; and at least 250 people died in a bombing in Baghdad.

For the vast majority of Muslims, however, violence is antithetical to Ramadan. And a large number of those on the receiving end of such violence are Muslims, highlighting the heinous nature of Islamic State.

“Muslims are suffering the greatest,” Krieg said. “It’s tearing families and communities apart.”

Follow me on Twitter @melissaetehad

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Students and Jewish community members filed a lawsuit Monday against San Francisco State University and Cal State’s board of trustees, alleging that the San Francisco campus of the country’s largest public university system has long cultivated a hostile environment in which Jewish students are “often afraid to wear Stars of David or yarmulkes on campus, and regularly text their friends to describe potential safety issues.”

The lawsuit, filed in the U.S. District Court of the Northern District of California by attorneys from The Lawfare Project and the firm Winston & Strawn LLP, was prompted by a confrontation in April 2016, when the mayor of Jerusalem, Nir Barkat, was invited by SF Hillel to speak on campus.

According to the lawsuit, protesters used bullhorns to drown out the mayor’s speech and yelled and chanted “Intifada,” “Get the [expletive] off our campus,” and “From the river to the sea, Palestine will be free,” while university administrators allowed the disruption to continue and instructed campus police to “stand down.”

“SFSU has not merely fostered and embraced anti-Jewish hostility — it has systematically supported these departments and student groups as they have doggedly organized their efforts to target, threaten, and intimidate Jewish students on campus and deprive them of their civil rights and their ability to feel safe and secure as they pursue their education,” the lawsuit said.

The lawsuit contends that the way administrators handled the April confrontation is consistent with other incidents on campus over the years. It lists other alleged incidents including a 10-foot mural put up on the student union building in 1994 that featured yellow Stars of David intertwined with dollar signs, skulls and crossbones, and the words “African Blood.”

After a 2002 peace rally, the lawsuit states, a group of students shouted “Hitler didn’t finish the job,” “Get out or we’ll kill you,” and “Go back to Russia” to the Jewish students who stayed behind to clean up and hold a prayer service.

Daniel Ojeda, the university’s counsel, said in a statement that San Francisco State “was not aware of the complaint and has not had an opportunity to review or respond to it.”

“We have been working closely with the Jewish community, among other interest groups, to address concerns and improve the campus environment for all students,” he said. “Those efforts have been very productive and will continue notwithstanding this lawsuit.”

The lawsuit comes at a time when free speech has become a highly charged issue on college campuses across the nation, with many debating the line between hate speech and academic freedom.

Reports of anti-Semitic incidents on campuses across the country have increased in recent years. Assaults, vandalism, and harassment grew by 34% in 2016 and jumped 86 percent in the first quarter of 2017, according to a recent report by the Anti-Defamation League.

Follow @RosannaXia for more education news

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Rick Vanderhook’s strategy was already in motion as he jittered in the dugout, unable to stand still. His decision would either prolong Fullerton’s season in this elimination game of the College World Series… or destroy it.

In Monday’s seventh inning, Fullerton led Florida State by one run. There were runners on second and third and no outs. Reliever Blake Workman jogged in. The Seminoles’ No. 3 hitter, Jackson Lueck, waited. He was Florida State’s best hitter, batting .320 with nine home runs.

So Vanderhook ordered Workman to walk him.

Intentionally loading the bases was aggressive: It put trust on Workman — and tremendous pressure. And so as the count ran full on the subsequent batter, Vanderhook paced. He chomped, hard, on his chewing gum. He laughed nervously.

Workman threw ball four: tie score. Vanderhook argued, earned an umpire’s warning, walked up the tunnel and back. Workman went full on the next hitter. Then he walked him, too.

The walks would be Fullerton’s undoing. The Seminoles never surrendered the lead. They won, 6-4, and survived. The Titans couldn’t protect another College World Series lead, again powered by shortstop Timmy Richards, and their season ended.

Fullerton starter John Gavin lasted just 3 1/3 innings and walked four, but he limited Florida State’s potent offense to two runs, one earned.

Still, Fullerton managed just one hit and the Seminoles led 3-1 by the sixth inning, when the bounce of a baseball changed the game. Florida State center fielder J.C. Flowers ran in for a low line drive with two outs and a runner on. He dove. His glove plucked the ball inches from the grass. But his collision with the ground rattled the ball loose, a run scored and the inning extended.

The next batter, Timmy Richards now represented the go-ahead run. He spied a breaking ball hanging high and over the plate. He gritted his teeth hard and swung hard enough that his backswing thumped the back of his uniform between the numbers. The ball easily cleared the wall in left field. On Saturday, Richards had hit a three-run home run in the first inning against Oregon State to boost the Titans to an unlikely early lead. Now, after a squandered lead had put Fullerton on the brink of elimination, his two-run home run had given Cal State Fullerton new life, and the lead.

But it would not be the last time an errant bounce in the outfield would swing fortunes in this game.

In the next inning, with a runner on, Fullerton left fielder Chris Prescott tracked a ball headed toward the fence, leaped and snared the ball in his glove. But as he smacked off the wall, the ball bounced free.

It put two runners on in the seventh inning. It was a worrisome jam. Vanderhook went to the bullpen. Then he settled on his strategy.

Follow Zach Helfand on Twitter @zhelfand

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Federal and state officials on Monday moved to block the merger between DraftKings Inc. and FanDuel, arguing the combination would harm competition by locking up 90% of the daily fantasy sports market in the U.S.

The Federal Trade Commission said it would file suit seeking a court injunction to stop the deal, joined by the attorneys general of California and the District of Columbia.

“This merger would deprive customers of the substantial benefits of direct competition between DraftKings and FanDuel,” said Tad Lipsky, acting director of the commission’s competition bureau.

DraftKings, based in Boston, is the largest daily fantasy sports company based on entry fees and revenues, the FTC said. FanDuel of Scotland is No.2.

Customers pay a fee to select a lineup of professional athletes, then compete for daily prizes based on their on-field performance. DraftKings and FanDuel compete to offer the best prices, largest prizes and greatest variety of contests, the FTC said.

In a joint statement, DraftKings Chief Executive Jason Robins and FanDuel Chief Executive Nigel Eccles said they would “work together to determine our next steps.”

“We are disappointed by this decision and continue to believe that a merger is in the best interests of our players, our companies, our employees and the fantasy sports industry,” they said.

Other fantasy sports contests involving competitions over an entire professional season are not likely to be “a meaningful substitute for paid daily fantasy sports,” the commission said.

The FTC voted 2-0 to authorize its staff to seek a temporary restraining order and preliminary injunction in federal court.

Some state officials have complained that the competitions amount to illegal sports betting and have banned them. California has not banned them.

In January 2016, the California state Assembly approved a bill licensing daily fantasy sports sites to operate in the state, but the legislation was never taken up by the state Senate.

Twitter: @JimPuzzanghera

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